NFPA1616 Mass Evacuation, Sheltering, and Re-entry Programs
What Are the Benefits of Doing a Job Hazard Analysis?
Initial benefits from developing a JHA will become clear in the preparation stage. The analysis process might identify previously undetected hazards and increase the job knowledge of those participating. Hazard and health awareness is raised, communication between workers and supervisors is improved, and acceptance of safe work procedures is promoted.
AJHA, or better still, a written work procedure based on it, can form the basis for regular contact between supervisors and volunteer workers. It can serve as a teaching and orientation aid for initial job training and as a briefing guide for infrequent jobs. It might be used as a standard for health and hazard inspections or observations. In particular, a JHA will assist in completing comprehensive accident investigations.
Four Basic Steps in JHA. Four basic stages in conducting a JHA are:
- Selecting the job to be analyzed
- Breaking the job down into a sequence of steps
- Identifying potential hazards
- Determining preventive measures to overcome these hazards
What Is Important to Know When “Selecting the Job”?
Ideally, all jobs should be subjected to a JHA. In some cases there are practical constraints posed by the amount of time and effort required to do a JHA. The JHA to support just-in-time training for mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry must be conduct before the evacuation order is issued.
How Do I Break the Job into “Basic Steps”?
Af ter a job has been chosen for analysis, the next stage is to break the job into steps. A job step is defined as a segment of the operation necessary to advance the work.
Care must be taken not to make the steps too general. Missing specific steps and their associated hazards will not help. On the other hand, if they are too detailed, there will be too many steps. A rule of thumb is that most jobs can be described in less than ten steps. If more steps are required, you might want to divide the job into two segments, each with its separate JHA, or combine steps where appropriate. As an example, the job of changing a flat tire will be used in this document.
Job Hazard Analysis Worksheet
An important point to remember is to keep the steps in their correct sequence. Any step that is out of order might miss serious potential hazards or introduce hazards that do not actually exist.
Each step is recorded in sequence. Make notes about what is done rather than how it is done. Each item is started with an action verb.
This part of the analysis is usually prepared by knowing or watching a trained individual do the job. The job observer should have experienced and be capable in all parts of the job. To strengthen full co-operation and participation, the reason for the exercise must be clearly explained. The JHA is neither a “time and motion study” in disguise, nor an attempt to uncover individual unsafe acts. The job, not the individual, is being studied in an effort to make it safer by identifying hazards and making modifications to eliminate or reduce them.
The job should be observed during normal times and situations. For example, if a job is routinely done only at night, the JHA review should also be done at night. Similarly, only regular tools and equipment should be used. The only difference from normal operations is the fact that the worker is being observed.
When completed, the breakdown of steps should be discussed by all the participants (always including the worker) to make sure that all basic steps have been noted and are in the correct order.
L.10 How Do I “Identify Potential Hazards”? Once the basic steps have been recorded, potential hazards must be identified at each step. Based on observations of the job, knowledge of accident and injury causes, and personal experience, list the things that could go wrong at each step.
A second observation of the job being performed could be needed. Since the basic steps have already been recorded, more attention can now be focused on each potential hazard. At this stage, no attempt is made to solve any problems that might have been detected.
To help identify potential hazards, the job analyst can use questions such as these (this is not a complete list):
- Can any body part get caught in or between objects?
- Do tools, machines, or equipment present any hazards?
- Can the worker make harmful contact with moving objects?
- Can the worker slip, trip, or fall?
- Can the worker suffer strain from lifting, pushing, or pulling?
- Is the worker exposed to extreme heat or cold?
- Is excessive noise or vibration a problem?
- Is there a danger from falling objects?
- Is lighting a problem?
- Can weather conditions affect a hazard?
- Is harmful radiation a possibility?
- Can contact be made with hot, toxic, or caustic substances?
- Are there dusts, fumes, mists, or vapors in the air?
Includes household pets, service and assistance animals, working dogs, livestock, wildlife, exotic animals, zoo animals, research animals, and animals housed in shelters, rescue organizations, breeding facilities, and sanctuaries.
An animal that works, provides assistance, or performs tasks for the benefit of a person with a disability, or provides emotional support that alleviates one or more identified symptoms or effects of a person’s disability.
An ongoing process to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impacts of potential losses and maintain viable recovery strategies, recovery plans, and continuity of services.
- The ability to perform required actions.
- Occurring or appearing frequently; occurring frequently or habitually; usual. Done often; prevalent.
- Demonstrated capability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results.
- Damage Assessment. An appraisal or determination of the effects of the emergency or disaster on humans; on physical, operational, and economic characteristics; and on the environment.
- Emergency Communication. Alerting and warning community members in a defined area of a potential threat to life and property and the actions to be taken in response to the threat.
Emergency Respite Provision of short-term, temporary relief to those who are caring for family members who might otherwise require permanent placement in a facility outside the home.
A person, organization, or group with mutually accepted accountability who is responsible for the implementation and/or fulfillment of the requirements and considerations of this standard.
- (1) The act or process of evacuating; (2) to leave or remove someone from a dangerous place; (3) to withdraw from the potential area of impact in an organized way, especially for protection; (4) organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas, and their reception and care in safe areas.
- Evacuation Order. An order issued by a jurisdictional authority requesting, recommending, or requiring the movement of people and animals out of a defined area due to an immediate threat to life and property from an emergency.
- Evacuation Warning. Alerting and warning of persons in a defined area of the potential need to evacuate due to a threat to life and property in response to an emergency.
Exercise. A process to assess, train, practice, and improve performance in an organization.
Incident. An event that has the potential to cause interruption, disruption, loss, emergency, crisis, disaster, or catastrophe.
Interoperability. The ability of diverse personnel, systems, and organizations to work together seamlessly.
- Joint Information System (JIS). Provides the mechanism to organize, integrate, and coordinate information to ensure timely, accurate, accessible, and consistent messaging across multiple jurisdictions or disciplines with nongovernmental organizations and the private sector and includes the plans, protocols, procedures, and structures used to provide public information.
- A quantity or aggregate of matter, usually of considerable size; a large body of persons in a group (a mass of spectators); a large quantity, amount, or number.
- Activities taken to reduce the impact from hazards.
Mutual Aid/Assistance Agreement. A prearranged agreement between two or more entities to share resources in response to an evacuation.
- People with Access and Functional Needs. Persons with disabilities and other access and functional needs include those from religious, racial, and ethnically diverse backgrounds; people with limited English proficiency; people with physical, sensory, behavioral and mental health, intellectual, developmental and cognitive disabilities, including individuals who live in the community and individuals who are institutionalized; older adults with and without disabilities; children with and without disabilities and their parents; individuals who are economically or transportation disadvantaged; women who are pregnant; individuals who have acute and chronic medical conditions; and those with pharmacological dependency.
- Ongoing activities, tasks, and systems to develop, implement, and maintain the program capabilities.
Prevention. Activities to avoid or stop an incident from occurring or reduce the impact of the incident.
Recovery. Activities and programs designed to return conditions to a level that is acceptable to the entity.
Re-entry. The return of people to a previously evacuated area.
Resource Management. A system for identifying available resources to enable timely access to resources needed to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, maintain continuity during, or recover from an incident.
Response. Immediate and ongoing activities, tasks, programs, and systems to manage the effects of an incident that threatens life, property, operations, or the environment.
Risk Assessment. The process of hazard identification and the analysis of hazards, vulnerabilities, and impacts.
Service Animal. Any dog or miniature horse that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability.
Shelter. A safe, short-term accommodation for persons and animals threatened or displaced by an emergency or disaster that can include overnight accommodations, heat or cooling, meals and water, security, health and medical services, clergy and social services, reunification, child care, showers, and laundry.
3.3.32 Sheltering. Seeking protection in the home, place of employment, or other location when disaster strikes. This can include staying with friends and relatives, seeking commercial lodging, or staying in a mass care facility operated by disaster relief groups in conjunction with local authorities.
- Shelter-in-Place. To use a safe area inside a building or structure during an incident.
- Stakeholder(s). Any individual, group, or organization that might affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by the emergency.
- Whole Community. Encompasses individuals, families, households, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and all levels of government.
Mass Evacuation, Sheltering, and Re-entry Program Management
Leadership and Commitment.
- The entity leadership shall demonstrate commitment to the program to evacuate, provide shelter, and facilitate re-entry.
- The leadership commitment shall include the following:
- Support the development, implementation, and maintenance of the program
- Provide necessary resources to support the program
- Ensure the program is reviewed and evaluated as needed to ensure program effectiveness
- Support corrective action to address program deficiencies
- Lead and support the program and execution of the mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry
- Ensure compliance with legal protections afforded to persons with disabilities and other access and functional needs, including access for service and assistance animals
- The entity shall adhere to policies, execute plans, and follow procedures developed to support the program.
4.2* Program Coordinator. An individual shall be appointed by the entity’s leadership and authorized to develop, implement, administer, evaluate, and maintain the program.
4.3.1* A program working group shall be established by the entity in accordance with its policy.
4.3.2 The program working group shall provide input and/or assist in the coordination of the preparation, development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of the program.
4.3.3* The program working group shall include the program coordinator and representation from the whole community.
- The program working group shall integrate all elements necessary for mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry within the entity and coordinate with other entities affected by these operations.
- Program Administration.
4.4.2* The program shall include an all-hazards approach and risk assessment.
- Performance Objectives.
4.5.1* The entity shall establish performance objectives for the program in accordance with the elements in Chapters 5 through 9.
- The performance objectives shall address the results of the hazard identification, the risk assessment, and the requirements analysis.
- Performance objectives shall address both short-term and long-term needs of evacuees, including persons with disabilities and other access and functional needs.
4.5.4* The entity shall define short term and long term.
- Records Management.
4.6.1* The entity shall develop, implement, and manage a records management program to ensure that records are available to the entity following an evacuation.
- Records management is designed to aid in the identification, backup, protection, and access to paper-based and electronic records that are vital to the entity and required for mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry.
- The program shall include the following:
- Identification of records (hard copy or electronic) vital to continue the operations of the entity
- Backup of records as necessary to meet program goals and objectives
- Validation of the integrity of records backup
- Implementation of procedures to store, retrieve, and recover records onsite or offsite
- Storage and protection of records
- Implementation of a record review process
- Procedures coordinating records access within and outside the organization
- Executing a retention policy to archive and destroy records according to operational needs, operating procedures, statutes, and regulations
- Laws and Authorities.
4.7.1* Mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry programs are covered by law or voluntary guidelines.
4.7.2* The entity shall implement a strategy for addressing the need for revisions to legislation, regulations, directives, policies, and industry codes of practice.
- Finance and Administration.
4.8.1 The entity shall develop finance and administrative procedures to support the program before, during, and after an evacuation.
4.8.2* There shall be a responsive finance and administrative framework that does the following:
- Complies with the entity’s program requirements
- Provides direct linkages to mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry operations
- Provides for maximum flexibility while retaining accountability
4.8.3 Finance and administrative procedures shall include the following:
- Accounting systems to track and document costs
- Program procurement procedures
- The distance to appropriate sheltering facilities
- The availability of and access to transportation to those facilities
- The ability to communicate with the affected population within the required timeframe
5.6.4 Factors to be considered in planning for mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry shall include the following:
- Establishment of single or unified command
- Development of a joint information system to notify the public and provide an assessment of the time needed to reach people with the information
- * Identification of appropriate sheltering facilities by location, size, types of services available, accessibility, and building safety
- Identification of the modes and routes for evacuee transportation and the time needed to reach them
- * Sources of evacuee support services
- Manpower requirements based on various potential shelters
5.6.5* Sheltering facilities shall be deemed appropriate for temporary occupancy of evacuees for the applicable hazards by the local authority having jurisdiction and conform to the applicable requirements to ensure public health, safety, and general welfare.
5.6.6 Factors to be considered in the planning for re-entry shall include the following:
- Controlling access to restricted areas for security and evacuee safety
- Prioritizing building inspection and permitting
- The availability of and requirements for functioning infrastructure and utilities
5.7 Resource Needs Assessment.
- The entity shall conduct a resource needs assessment.
- The resource needs assessment shall include the following:
- Human resources, stakeholders, equipment, training, facilities, funding, expert knowledge, materials, technology, information, intelligence, and the time frames within which they will be needed
- Quantity, response time, capability, and cost
- The entity shall plan to locate, acquire, store, distribute, maintain, test, and account for services, human resources, equipment, and materials procured to support the program.
- Facilities with known capabilities and partner agreements shall be pre-identified during the assessment and planning process.
- Established mutual aid/assistance or partnership agreements shall be included in the plan.
- Communications and Public Information.
- The entity shall develop a plan and procedures to disseminate information related to mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry to and respond to requests for information from the following audiences before, during, and after an incident:
- Internal audiences, including employees
- External audiences, including the general population, media, access and functional needs populations, community partners, and other stakeholders
- The entity shall establish and maintain a communications and public information plan that considers the following:
- Central contact facility or communications hub
- Physical or virtual information center
- System for gathering, monitoring, and disseminating information
- Procedures for developing and delivering coordinated messages
- Protocol to clear information for release
- Warning, Notifications, and Communications.
5.9.1 The entity shall determine its warning, notification, and communications needs for incidents requiring mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry.
5.9.2* Emergency warning, notification, and communications systems shall be reliable; interoperable; and, when feasible, redundant; and take into account persons with disabilities and other access and functional needs.
5.9.3* Emergency communications protocols and procedures shall be developed, tested regularly, and used to alert and warn stakeholders potentially at risk from an actual or impending hazard.
5.9.4* Procedures shall include issuing warnings through authorized agencies if required by law as well as the use of pre- scripted information bulletins or templates.
5.9.5 The same system used to issue pre-evacuation notifications shall be used to issue evacuation orders.
- Operational Procedure Planning.
- The entity shall develop operational procedures to support the plan.
- Procedures shall be established for mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry.
- Procedures shall consider life safety, property conservation, incident stabilization, continuity, and protection of the environment and of cultural heritage artifacts and buildings.
- Procedures shall include the following:
- Triggers for use in decision making for shelter-in-place or evacuation
- Triggers for re-entry operations
- Evacuation procedures
- The evacuation plan shall consider the following positions based on the size and complexity of the incident:
- Incident commander and deputies
- Command staff
- General staff
Sheltering procedures shall take into consideration the following:
Evacuee and animal registration
Security and building access control
Parking and traffic control
Public information, public affairs, and media relations
Medical and mental health services
Disability-related needs for services, equipment, and accommodations
Personal assistance services
Communications and information technology
Recovery information and resident messaging
Reunification of animals to owners
Risk management and loss control
Building maintenance and engineering
Donation and volunteer management
Spiritual care services
Children’s social services
Charging station and electrical connections for electrical devices (e.g., phones, tablets, and so forth)
Re-entry procedures shall be as given in 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206.
Those responsible for managing the evacuation shall ensure the transition to re-entry through performance objectives.
The entity shall determine when the area is safe prior to re-entry
The entity shall determine whether the infrastructure is sufficient to support re-entry.
Procedures shall consider concurrent mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry operations.
Chapter 6 Implementation
6.1* Incident Recognition.
- The entity shall notify the appropriate officials of the emergency or impending emergency.
- Plans shall be activated when further actions are warranted.
6.2* Situational Assessments.
- Initial Assessment.
- Depending on the nature of the incident, the initial situational assessment shall include an assessment of the impact to persons, animals, and property, infrastructure status, the availability of resources, and weather conditions.
- Based on the initial assessment, the entity shall decide whether to evacuate or shelter-in-place.
- Assessment and Evaluation. Assessments shall include evaluations of the effectiveness of previous and current actions.
- Notifications and Activation.
- Based upon the characteristics of the incident, those responsible for managing the incident shall make the necessary notifications to appropriate resources, directing them where and when to report.
- Those responsible for managing the incident shall provide content for public information and warning messages, which will be approved and disseminated using the jurisdiction’s established public information and warning policies and procedures.
- Those responsible for managing the incident shall identify and mobilize the appropriate resources to support the initial incident objectives.
- Evacuation Operations.
6.5.1* The entity shall be responsible for managing the evacuation operations.
- In implementing the evacuation plan the entity shall consider the following:
- Occurrences that might require evacuation
- Priority of evacuation
- Procedures to request and coordinate required transportation assets from jurisdictional agencies
- Arrangements for transporting evacuees, including persons with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, and their animals
- Evacuation timeline
- Traffic management
- Refueling, safety, and motorist assistance requirements
- The entity responsible for managing the evacuation shall continue to monitor media sources, public reports, incident characteristics, and progress of the operation, reflecting changing conditions that impact the incident objectives and incident action plan.
- The entity responsible for managing the evacuation shall provide for the safety and health of evacuees and responders during all decision making.
6.5.5* The entity responsible for managing the evacuation shall determine potential resource requirements to ensure that resource management supports evacuation operations.
6.5.6 The entity responsible for managing the evacuation shall continue to provide updated information to the public through the joint information system.
6.5.7* The entity responsible for managing the evacuation shall utilize a record-keeping process for tracking of those persons (including their animals and property) provided transportation, sheltering, or other assistance. (See Section 4.6.)
6.5.8 The entity managing the evacuation shall ensure appropriate record keeping of costs and claims associated with the evacuation. (See Section 4.6.)
6.6* Sheltering Operations.
6.6.1 The entity shall provide procedures and coordinate components necessary to provide shelter to evacuees.
6.6.2* The entity shall provide for a safe and secure environment for evacuees.
- The shelter plan shall address the basic needs of evacuees, including the following:
(1 )* Medical support
- Persons with disabilities and others with access and functional needs support
- Cultural and religious support
- Animals, including pets and service and assistance animals
- Support services, including food, water, first aid, and personal care
- Gender identity in accordance with applicable laws, regulations, and policies
- The entity shall provide information on the location and accessibility of shelters.
- Transition to Interim and Recovery Housing. The entity shall ensure processes and procedures for transitioning individuals unable to return home into interim or long-term recovery housing.
- Transition to Re-entry.
- The entity responsible for managing the evacuation shall ensure the transition to re-entry.
- The entity shall determine when the area is safe prior to evacuees returning.
- The entity shall determine whether the infrastructure is sufficient to support re-entry.
- The entity shall complete a damage assessment prior to initiating re-entry.
Training and Education
7.1 Curriculum. The entity shall develop and implement a competency-based training and education curriculum that supports all persons who have a role in the program.
7.1.1 All persons involved shall have a basic understanding of the incident command system (ICS) and how the AHJ will implement the command functions and allocation of resources.
7.1.2 Persons who will fill command functions shall have documented additional competency-based training.
- Goals of the Curriculum. The goals of the curriculum shall be to create awareness and to enhance the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to implement, support, and maintain the program.
- Scope and Frequency of Instruction. The scope of the curriculum and the frequency of instruction shall be identified by the AHJ.
- Record Keeping. Records of training and education shall be maintained as specified in Section 4.6.
- Regulatory and Program Requirements. The curriculum shall comply with applicable regulatory and program requirements.
7.6* Public Education. A public education program shall be implemented to communicate the following:
- Community awareness of potential hazards
- Understanding how and when a declaration of shelter-in- place or evacuation will take place
- Preparation for and safety during shelter-in-place
- Sources of reliable information on evacuation
- Evacuation warnings and orders
- Preparations for and safety during evacuation
- Consequences of refusal to evacuate
- Preparations for and safety during sheltering
- How re-entry information will be determined and communicated to all persons
Training delivery to support mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry shall be presented by competent personnel.
Chapter 8 Exercises
- The entity shall evaluate program plans, procedures, training, and capabilities and promote continuous improvement through periodic exercises.
- The entity shall evaluate the program based on post- incident analyses of mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry; lessons learned; and operational performance during exercises in accordance with Chapter 9.
- Exercises shall be documented. 2* Exercise Methodology.
- Exercises shall provide a standardized methodology to practice and interact with other entities (internal and external) in a controlled setting.
- Exercises shall be designed to assess the maturity of program plans, procedures, and strategies.
Design of Exercises.
Exercises shall be designed to do the following:
- Ensure the safety of people, animals, property, and the environment involved in the exercise
- Evaluate the program
- Identify planning and procedural opportunities for improvement
- Validate recently changed procedures or plans
- Clarify roles and responsibilities
- Obtain participant feedback and recommendations for program improvement
- Measure improvement compared to performance objectives
- Improve coordination among internal and external teams, organizations, and entities
- Validate training and education effectiveness
- Increase awareness of hazards and the potential impact of hazards
- Identify additional resources and assess the capabilities of existing resources, including personnel and equipment needed for effective mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry. The resources need to take into account persons with disabilities and other access and functional needs and owners and their animals.
- Practice the deployment of resources to manage mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry
- Assess the ability to manage the mass evacuation, sheltering, and re-entry program
- Improve individual performance
- Exercise Evaluation. Exercises shall evaluate program plans, procedures, training, and capabilities to identify opportunities for improvement.
- Exercises shall be conducted on the frequency needed to establish and maintain required capabilities.
220.127.116.11 Frequencies of exercises and resources needed shall be defined in the plan.
- The entity shall establish the schedule for exercises.
Program Maintenance and Improvement
9.1* Program Reviews. The entity shall maintain and improve the program by evaluating its effectiveness using performance objectives and by identifying corrective and preventive action changes based upon assessments and evaluations conducted during exercises and real events.
- The entity shall improve effectiveness of the program through incorporation of identified preventive and corrective actions.
- The program shall be re-evaluated when a change in any of the following affects the entity’s program:
- Hazards and potential impacts
- Resource availability or capability
- The entity’s organizational structure or operations
- Funding changes
- Infrastructure, including the technology environment
- Economic stability and demographics 1.3* The entity shall review and revise the program based on post-incident analyses of mass evacuation, sheltering, and reentry; lessons learned; and operational performance during exercises and real events.
- The entity shall maintain records of its reviews and evaluations, in accordance with the records management practices developed under Section 4.6.
- Documentation, records, and reports shall be provided to management for review and follow-up.
- Corrective Actions.
- The entity shall establish a corrective action process.
- The entity shall take corrective actions on identified opportunities for improvement.
- Continuous Improvement. The entity shall effect continuous improvement of the program through the use of program reviews and the corrective action process.