NFPA 1730 Organization and Deployment of Fire Prevention Inspection and Code Enforcement Plan Review Investigation and Public Education Operations
The assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, that are so vital to the community that their damage or destruction would have a debilitating effect.
Fire Prevention Organization (FPO). The organization having authority to provide fire prevention, inspection and code enforcement, plan review, investigation, and fire and life safety education.
An occupancy that has a history of high frequency of fires, high potential for loss of life or economic loss, or that has a low or moderate history of fires or loss of life but the occupants have a high dependency on the built-in fire protection features or staff to assist in evacuation during a fire or other emergency.
An occupancy that has a history of low frequency of fires and minimal potential for loss of life or economic loss.
An occupancy that has a history of moderate frequency of fires or a moderate potential for loss of life or economic loss.
Fire Prevention Organizational Statement.
The authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) shall maintain a written statement or policy that establishes the following:
Existence of the FPO
Services that the FPO will provide
Basic organizational structure
Expected number of FPO members
Functions that FPO members are expected to perform
The FPO organizational statement shall provide service delivery objectives, including specific objectives for fire prevention inspection and code enforcement, plan review, investigation, and public education.
The FPO shall have a leader and an organizational structure that facilitates efficient and effective management of its resources to carry out its mandate.
The FPO shall have an organizational structure of the size and complexity required to accomplish its mission.
Management Information Systems (MIS).
The FPO shall develop an MIS.
An MIS shall be maintained to support the management of the FPO by providing the leaders with data that indicate the effectiveness of the organization in its programs and procedures.
Incident records shall be reviewed each year.
The MIS shall provide a means of measuring performance outcomes and trends for each area established through the organizational statement.
Responsibility for the functions of budget control shall fall under the direction of the FPO leader.
The FPO budgetary system shall reflect and support the organization’s goals, objectives, and expected outcomes.
The FPO shall have a system of accounts for financial administration that includes a record of funds received and expended.
The FPO shall follow generally accepted accounting practices (GAAP) or similar financial operating practices required by the AHJ.
Community Risk Assessment (CRA).
The FPO shall conduct a CRA (see Chapter 5).
The CRA shall be reviewed at a minimum of once every 5 years or more frequently when changes take place that affect the original assessment.
The CRA shall be distributed to agencies, departments, and employees having responsibilities designated in the community risk reduction (CRR) plan established in accordance with3.8(1).
A record shall be kept of all holders of the CRA.
A system shall be implemented for issuing all changes to or revisions of the CRA to all holders.
The resources and personnel required to provide the level of service(s) outlined in 4.1.1 shall be determined by the FPO or by the AHJ.
The FPO shall examine opportunities to utilize all personnel for activities within the standard.
The FPO shall have training and education programs and policies to ensure that personnel are trained and that competency is maintained in order to effectively, efficiently, and safely execute all responsibilities.
The FPO leader shall coordinate training, maintain training records, and assist in evaluating the effectiveness of the program.
Authority Having Jurisdiction. The AHJ shall develop, establish, and implement policies and procedures to ensure compliance with this standard.
Community Risk Assessment
The FPO shall analyze the profile data and identify risks facing the community.
The FPO shall identify and seek out stakeholders and employ an inclusive process to solicit input on the risks facing the community, and shall revise the identified risks as necessary in accordance with the input process.
The FPO shall categorize the risks based on their probability and impact.
The FPO shall conduct a needs analysis on the risks and identify strategies to include in a CRR plan.
The FPO shall carry out the following:
Develop a CRR plan that identifies program and resource priorities that will reduce a community’s risks consistent with1.1
Obtain required approval of the CRR plan
Develop the risk reduction programs
Allocate resources for risk reduction programs
The FPO shall assess the performance of the risk reduction programs on an ongoing basis to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness and modify the programs accordingly.
Fire Prevention Inspection and Code Enforcement Activities in Existing Occupancies
This chapter establishes the organization and deployment of fire prevention resources for fire prevention inspection and code enforcement activities in existing occupancies. New construction and renovation inspections are contained in Chapter 7.
The purpose of this chapter is to specify the minimum frequencies for fire prevention and code enforcement inspections and the minimum staff necessary to perform those inspections in existing occupancies.
Fire prevention inspection and code enforcement services, including department personnel, equipment, and all support and resources, shall be structured to meet the organizational objectives required by Chapter
Fire prevention inspection and code enforcement shall be conducted to ensure compliance with adopted codes and standards.
Risk Assessment. The CRA shall be the basis for the development of the fire prevention inspection and code enforcement program per Chapter
Qualifications of Personnel. Personnel responsible for fire prevention and code enforcement activities shall meet the job performance requirements in NFPA 1031 for the inspection duties they perform.
Minimum Inspection Frequency
This chapter establishes the organization and deployment for plan reviews and field acceptance inspections for new construction and renovation of existing buildings. Code enforcement inspection in existing occupancies is contained in Chapter 6.
This chapter identifies the tasks necessary to complete initial plan reviews through to the certificate of occupancy.
The purpose of this chapter is to establish the organization and deployment for the FPO as it relates to plan review for emergency vehicle access, water supply, new construction, change of occupancy use, renovations, change or addition of fire and life safety systems, and associated acceptance field inspections.
General Requirements. Plan reviews and new construction fire inspection services, including department personnel, equipment, and all support and resources, shall be structured to meet the organizational objectives required.
Risk Assessment. The FPO shall evaluate and incorporate the CRA as referenced in Chapter 5 when establishing the plan reviews and field acceptance inspections.
Qualifications of Personnel. Personnel who perform plan reviews or field acceptance inspections shall meet the job performance requirements in NFPA 1031.
The FPO shall determine the minimum resources, personnel, and equipment levels necessary to perform plan reviews and field acceptance inspections.
Plan review times can be determined based on the area of the structure or facility and the life safety complexity of different occupancy classifications or hazardous processes.
Plan review services times can be calculated based on the number of sprinkler heads in a sprinkler protection system, the number of fire alarm devices in a fire alarm system, and other defined times for special extinguishing systems.
Field inspection times can be determined by doubling the plan review times that are defined in the plan review process.
Minimum Plan Review Elements.
7.7.1* Initial Fire Protection Environmental Impact (Feasibility Study). The developer and the FPO shall conduct a preliminary review of the project.
7.7.2 Water Supply and Fire Flow. A site plan review shall be conducted to ensure that the water supply meets jurisdiction requirements.
7.7.3* Emergency Vehicle Access. A review of emergency vehicle access shall be conducted to ensure that it meets jurisdictional requirements.
7.7.4* Construction Building Plans Related to Fire Protection Features. A review of plans shall be conducted to verify compliance with applicable codes and standards for fire protection features.
7.7.5* Certificate of Occupancy Inspections. Certificate of occupancy inspections shall be conducted to ensure compliance with applicable codes and standards and approved plans.
7.7.6* Hazardous Materials and Processes. A hazardous materials and processes review shall be conducted to ensure compliance with applicable codes and standards.
7.7.7* Fire Protection System Plans. A fire protection system plan review shall be conducted to ensure compliance with applicable codes and standards.
7.7.8* Fire and Life Safety Systems Field Acceptance Inspections. A fire and life safety system field acceptance inspection shall be conducted to ensure compliance with applicable codes and standards.
7.7.9 Certificate of Occupancy Issued. After the certificate of occupancy has been issued, the FPO shall notify the responsible party for fire prevention and code enforcement inspections.
8.5.1 All personnel conducting the investigation of the origin, cause, and circumstances of any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, or other hazardous condition shall be trained and qualified commensurate with the duties they are expected to perform.
184.108.40.206 A training, education, and professional development program with a goal of preventing occupational deaths, injuries, and illnesses shall be provided.
8.5.2* Personnel assigned to investigation activities shall comply with the job performance requirements of NFPA 1033.
220.127.116.11* All fire officers determining the preliminary origin, cause, and circumstances of any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident or other hazardous condition; securing the incident scene; and protecting evidence or potential evidence from damage or destruction shall meet the job performance requirements of NFPA 1021.
Required Personnel — Staffing Levels.
The resources and personnel required to provide the level of service required by this chapter shall be determined by the AHJ in accordance with this standard.
The FPO shall have a standard operating guideline (SOG) for the staffing levels for fire scene examination.
The time necessary to conduct investigation activities under this chapter shall be evaluated as follows:
On scene: Time spent on activities conducted at a fire scene
Off scene: Time spent on activities conducted away from the fire scene
Travel time: Total travel time related to an activity
Court appearance: Time required to attend or testify in court
Preparation time: Time required to prepare for testimony
Report writing: Time spent generating reports
Telephone/Email: Time spent on calls and emails attributed to the fire investigation
Process reports: Time spent entering, approving, formatting, distributing, copying
Data entry: Time spent by administrative staff to enter data
Data search: Time spent searching and retrieving data
Filing: Time spent by administrative staff for general filing
Human resources (HR): Time spent by administrative staff for general HR duties
Financial: Time spent on general budget and accounting duties
Legal/disclosure: Time spent copying or preparing disclosure
Cost recovery: Time spent on cost recovery
The FPO shall investigate or shall cause to be investigated the origin, cause, and circumstances of any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, or other hazardous condition that occurs in its legal jurisdiction.
Where the FPO does not have the authority or jurisdiction to investigate criminal matters, and when evidence of criminal activity is detected or suspected, the FPO shall notify the appropriate law enforcement agency.
The policies of the FPO shall set forth the requirement for post-incident investigations.
Post-incident investigation activities shall be organized to ensure that the investigation capabilities include personnel, equipment, and resources to meet the activities required by Chapter 4.
18.104.22.168 The FPO shall have the authority to take custody of or cause custody to be taken of all physical evidence related to the cause of a fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, or other hazardous condition in accordance with local laws, policies, and procedures.
22.214.171.124* The FPO shall have an SOG for the collection, examination, testing, preservation, and storage of evidence in accordance with ASTM E860, Standard Practice for Examining and Preparing Items That Are or May Become Involved in Criminal or Civil Litigation, and ASTM El 188, Standard Practice for Collection and Preservation of Information and Physical Items by a Technical Investigator.
126.96.36.199* The investigation shall follow a systematic approach in the investigation of the origin, cause, and circumstances of any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, or other hazardous condition.
188.8.131.52* The investigation shall identify or shall cause to be identified any violations of fire or building legislation/codes or other conditions that could have caused or contributed to the cause or spread of fire or any injuries or fatalities, including both civilians and fire personnel.
184.108.40.206* The FPO shall have an SOG for investigation scene safety, including the need for site-specific plans.
220.127.116.11* Complex Investigations. The FPO shall have an SOG for conducting and participating in a complex investigation.
Limiting Access. The FPO shall have the authority to limit access to emergencies or other similar conditions.
8.8.1* The FPO shall fully report or shall cause to be fully reported all investigations of the origin, cause, and circumstances of any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, or other hazardous condition as required by local law and for the purpose of determining community risk.
Investigation programs shall be adequately evaluated to determine whether they are appropriate, effective, and efficient. Evaluation shall include formative, process, impact, and outcome phases.
Trade Secret. Information that could be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of the public record except as could be directed by a court of law.
Information that could be related to the identification of youths shall not be made part of the public record except when directed by a court of law.
Youths determined to be involved in fires shall be referred to the appropriate programs or authorities.
Public Education Programs
9.1 Scope. This chapter establishes the organization and deployment of the FPO for public education activities.
- The purpose of this chapter is to establish the [organization and deployment for the FPO as it relates tol public education programs that reduce the community’s risks, demonstrate the value of public education activities, and implement appropriate prevention and intervention activities.
- General Requirements. (Reserved)
- Risk Assessment. The FPO shall evaluate and incorporate the applicable components of the CRR plan required by 3.8(1) when developing and revising public education programs.
- Qualification of Personnel.
- Personnel assigned to public education activities shall comply with the job performance requirements in NFPA 1035.
- Personnel assigned to deliver public education programs established and designed for delivery shall meet the Level I job performance requirements in NFPA 1035.
- Personnel assigned to develop and evaluate specific public education programs shall meet the Level 11 job performance requirements in NFPA 1035.
- Personnel assigned to manage the public education programs of this standard shall meet the Level III job performance requirements in NFPA 1035.
9.5.5* The FPO shall be permitted to approve other individuals to deliver specific public education programs when those individuals demonstrate expertise in the programs to be delivered.
18.104.22.168 Educators from organizations outside the FPO shall meet all additional criteria based on the audience or specific venue where the program is delivered.
9.6* Required Personnel. Public education functions shall be organized to ensure that the FPO public education capability includes personnel, equipment, and resources to meet the activities required by Chapter 4.
9.7* Responsibility. The FPO shall have a system to accomplish the requirements of Section 9.1 that include program development, implementation, evaluation, and revision.
9.8 Public Education Program Development/Revision.
9.8.1 Educational programs shall be developed based on the CRR plan established in accordance with Chapter 5.
9.8.2* Development of specific programs shall be based on measures demonstrating the risks associated with a specific population, demographic, or geographic region.
9.8.3 The FPO shall partner with other private, public, or nonprofit organizations as appropriate to develop new programs or revise existing programs based on the CRA.
9.8.4* Programs developed by other organizations with learning objectives that support the CRR plan of the FPO shall be considered for delivery within the community.
9.8.5* Programs developed under this standard shall be reviewed for appropriate program content based upon instructional methodology, age levels, abilities, developmental needs, and cultural or social differences of the target audience.
9.8.6* Educational programs developed under this standard shall have defined course objectives that address identified fire and injury causes as identified by the CRA required by Chapter 5.
9.8.7 The FPO shall identify process and impact measures that support the outcome goals and measures of each educational program.
- Public Education Program Delivery.
- The FPO shall partner with other private, public, or nonprofit organizations as appropriate to deliver programs to reduce injury and fire loss in the community identified in the CRA.
- The FPO shall select the delivery mechanisms most appropriate for the target audience.
- Educational programs shall be delivered to the audiences identified in the CRA.
- Educational program delivery shall be evaluated to determine the most effective frequency, mechanism, format, and venue based on identified process measures.
- Data for the evaluation of process measures shall be collected with each educational program delivery.
- Public Education Program Evaluation.
- All programs shall be evaluated to verify that the program is reaching the target audience and achieving the desired impacts and outcomes identified in Section2.
- Process and impact evaluation from educational program deliveries shall be compiled by the FPO not less than annually.
- Outcome measures shall be evaluated with the CRA.
22.214.171.124 Outcome measures shall be evaluated more frequently or prior to the next scheduled CRA based on the level of activity and the desired outcome timeline of the specific educational program.
- Results of educational program evaluations shall be presented to the chief executive responsible for fire prevention not less than annually.
- Educational program evaluation shall include recommended changes to programs in order to improve impact, process, and outcome measures of the program.
- Educational program instructors shall be evaluated to ensure adherence to program objectives and their individual effectiveness at achieving the learning objectives of the programs delivered.
- Each instructor’s delivery of the educational program shall be evaluated for effectiveness and adherence to professional qualifications and be conducted within the scope of the instructor’s training, education, and experience.
9.11.1 Daycare, Preschool, and Pre-K Through 12 School Fire and Life Safety Educational Programs.
PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS
126.96.36.199 Educational programs for school-age target audiences shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
188.8.131.52 Educational programs under this chapter shall be developed for students in daycare, preschool, pre-kindergarten, and education levels K-12.
184.108.40.206* Educational programs shall he developed based on age and developmentally appropriate content and delivery method for the targeted audience.
- All educational programs shall comply with applicable regional and state educational requirements.
220.127.116.11* Educational programs shall also include training or materials for adult caregivers of the students.
- Higher Education Fire and Life Safety Education Programs.
- Educational programs for students in higher education shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
- Programs shall be targeted at postsecondary education students enrolled in college, university, community college, technical school or any postsecondary formal educational programs.
- Educational programs shall be developed for the specific housing needs of students as defined by their on- campus dormitory, off-campus housing, or private and learning institution-sponsored, or fraternity/sorority housing status.
18.104.22.168* Educational programs shall be developed for any other defined risk in the higher education status.
- Educational programs shall be permitted to be an integral part of the student orientation or other institution- sponsored educational effort.
- Educational programs shall also include enhanced training for dormitory student managers and fraternity/sorority leadership.
- Educational programs shall include enhanced training for off-campus housing organizations and landlords.
- Educational programs for institutional staff shall be conducted in accordance with Section 9.11.
- Independent Senior Adult Fire and Life Safety Educational Programs.
- Educational programs for independent senior adults shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
22.214.171.124.1 Independent senior adult education programs shall be targeted at those community members over the age of 55 who live independently or as determined by the FPO.
- Educational programs shall be permitted to be associated with other independent senior-based outreach programs and organizations to maximize the delivery and outreach of the program.
126.96.36.199* Independent senior educational programs shall also include training or materials for adult caregivers of seniors.
- Adult and Community-Wide Public Educational Programs.
188.8.131.52 Adult and community-wide educational programs shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
184.108.40.206* Adult and community-wide education programs shall be targeted at adults and the communities in which they live.
- Workplace Fire and Life Safety Education.
- Workplace educational programs shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
220.127.116.11* Workplace education programs are targeted at employees, managers, and owners of businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government organizations in the community, with a focus on fire prevention and safety in the workplace and home.
18.104.22.168 All programs shall be developed and delivered with consideration to specific workplace needs, processes, and activities in the workplace.
- Youth Firesetter Educational Programs.
22.214.171.124* Youth firesetter educational programs shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
- Youth firesetter educational programs shall be targeted at youths who exhibit behaviors associated with setting fires.
126.96.36.199* Youth firesetter educational programs shall include the availability of mental and social counseling services.
188.8.131.52* Youth firesetter programs shall have defined course objectives that address specific firesetting behaviors exhibited by the participating student(s) or identified by local or nationally recognized objectives for the target audience.
184.108.40.206* State and local requirements of record keeping, reporting, and confidentiality associated with youth shall be followed.
- Home Safety Education Programs.
220.127.116.11 Home safety education programs shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
18.104.22.168* Home safety education programs shall be targeted at homeowners, owners of condominium units, tenants of single-family dwellings, and tenants of multifamily housing units.
- Home safety program management shall address all state and local regulations concerning mandated reporting requirements of other crimes and violations of the law as well as applicable confidentiality requirements.
- Wildfire Safety Educational Programs.
22.214.171.124 Educational programs for wildfire prevention and preparedness shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
- Educational programs under this chapter shall be developed for residents and visitors of communities within wildland urban interface areas.
- Educational programs shall cover relevant topics, including, but not limited to, wildfire prevention, defensible space, home hardening, emergency planning, and evacuations.
- Wildfire cause data shall be analyzed periodically and used to develop key educational messages for the public.
9.12 Alternative Educational Messaging.
9.12.1* Alternative education materials and messages shall be developed based on the CRR plan developed in accordance with Chapter 5.
- The FPO shall develop media communications strategies that support educational programs consistent with 5.4.3 and 5.4.4 of NFPA 1037.
- FPO shall develop social media communications strategies that support public education programs where appropriate.
Annex A Explanatory Material
Annex A is not a part of the recommendations of this NFPA documen t but is included for informational purposes only. This annex contains explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the applicable text paragraphs.
A 1.1.1 The committee considered different approaches to determine the number of required personnel for code enforcement/inspection activities, including population, number of buildings, risk within occupancies, occupancy types within the community, the potential for economic and life loss within the community, and a variety of other factors. The AHJ is the best source to determine the number of hours and personnel needed to meet the specific code enforcement/inspection activities required under this standard because each community has a different number and types of occupancies, populations, and critical infrastructure. Any attempt to determine an across-the-board number using only one or a few of the factors described in this standard would not take into account the unique nature of each community and would result in inadequate or surplus personnel.
A3.2.1 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, procedures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evaluate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of installations, procedures, equipment, or materials, the AHJ may base acceptance on compliance with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper installation, procedure, or use. The AHJ may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate standards for the current production of listed items.
A3.2.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The phrase “authority having jurisdiction,” or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and approval agencies vary, as do their responsibilities. Where public safety is primary, the AHJ may be a federal, state, local, or other regional department or individual such as a fire chief; fire marshal; chief of a fire prevention bureau, labor department, or health department; building official; electrical inspector; or others having statutory authority. For insurance purposes, an insurance inspection department, rating bureau, or other insurance company representative may be the AHJ. In many circumstances, the property owner or his or her designated agent assumes the role of the AHJ; at government installations, the commanding officer or departmental official may be the AHJ.
A3.3.1 Critical Infrastructure. Examples of critical infrastructures could include water treatment plant, special structures, public safety buildings, and power plants.
A.126.96.36.199 High-Risk Occupancy. Examples of high-risk occupancies could include multiple-family dwellings, high-rise buildings, hotels, dormitories, lodging and rooming, assembly, child care, detention, educational, health care, and industrial.
A188.8.131.52 Low-Risk Occupancy. Examples of low-risk occupancies could include storage, mercantile, and business.
A184.108.40.206 Moderate-Risk Occupancy. Examples of moderate- risk occupancies could include ambulatory health care and industrial occupancies that do not maintain, store, use, or handle hazardous materials in excess of exempt amounts.
A4.2.2 See A.4.7.1 for a methodology to determine the adequate size for an FPO.
A4.7.1 One model for analyzing the personnel needed to achieve the level of service(s) outlined in 4.1.2 is an analysis consisting of a process in which the scope of services and duties, along with their time requirements, is combined to determine the total hours required. In many communities, one person or a few perform all the functions of code enforcement, plan examination, fire investigation, and public education. To determine personnel levels in these instances, each function should be evaluated for time and then those times added up.
Step 1. Scope of Services, Duties, and Desired Outputs. Identify the services and duties that are performed within the scope of the organization. Outputs should be specific, measurable, reproducible, and time limited. Among the elements can be the following:
- Data collection and analysis
- Local variables
- Budgetary considerations
- Impact of risk assessment
Step 2. Time Demand. Quantify the time necessary to develop, deliver, and evaluate various services and duties identified in Step 1 [see Table A.4.7.1(a)], taking into account the following:
- Local nuances
- Resources that affect personnel needs
Table A4.7.1 (a) Sample Form for Required Personnel Hours
Time per Task
Total Time Required
A.220.127.116.11 To be effective, fire and explosion investigation and analysis must be conducted in a systematic manner. The systematic approach recommended for fire investigation, as contained in NFPA 921, is that set forth in the scientific method, as follows:
- Recognize the Need. First, it should be determined that a problem exists. In this case, a fire or explosion has occurred and the cause should be determined and listed so that future, similar incidents can be prevented.
- Define the Problem. Having determined that a problem exists, the investigator or analyst should define the manner in which the problem can be solved. In this case, a proper origin and cause investigation should be conducted. This is done by an examination of the scene and by a combination of other data collection methods, such as the review of previously conducted investigations of the incident, the interviewing of witnesses or other knowledgeable persons, and the results of scientific testing.
- Collect Data. Facts about the fire incident are collected by observation, experiment, or other direct data-gathering means. The data collected are called empirical data because they are based on observation or experience and are capable of being verified or are known to be true.
- Analyze the Data (Inductive Reasoning). The scientific method requires that all data collected be analyzed. This is an essential step that must take place before the formation of the final hypothesis. The identification, gathering, and cataloging of data do not equate to data analysis. Analysis of the data is based on the knowledge, training, experience, and expertise of the individual doing the analysis. If the investigator lacks expertise to properly attribute meaning to a piece of data, then assistance should be sought. Understanding the meaning of the data will enable the investigator to form hypotheses based on the evidence rather than on speculation.
- Develop) a Hypothesis. Based upon the data analysis, the investigator produces a hypothesis or group of hypotheses. The hypothesis must be based solely on the empirical data that the investigator has collected.
- Test the Hypothesis (Deductive Reasoning). To be valid, a hypothesis must be able to stand the test of careful and serious challenge. Testing of the hypothesis is done by the principle of deductive reasoning, in which the investigator compares his or her hypothesis to all the known facts as well as the body of scientific knowledge associated with the phenomena relevant to the specific incident. A hypothesis can be tested either physically, by conducting experiments, or analytically, by applying scientific principles in “thought experiments.” When relying on experiments or research of others, the investigator must ensure that the conditions and circumstances are sufficiendy similar. When the investigator relies on previously conducted research, references to the research relied upon should be noted. If the hypothesis cannot be supported, it should be discarded and alternative hypotheses should be developed and tested. This can include the collection of new data or the re-analysis of existing data. The testing process needs to be continued until all feasible hypotheses have been tested and one is determined to be uniquely consistent with the facts and with the principles of science. If no hypothesis can withstand an examination by deductive reasoning, the issue should be considered “undetermined.”
(7) Select Final Hypothesis.
A.18.104.22.168 To properly identify and address matters involving building and fire code issues pertinent to the incident, the investigative team might consist of fire investigators, law enforcement personnel, and code enforcement personnel.
A.22.214.171.124 NFPA 1500 requires that the incident commander makes sure fire investigators or other members who enter an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) atmosphere or hazardous area use personal protective equipment and respiratory protection as appropriate for risks that might be encountered.
Additional requirements for safety are detailed in NFPA 921.
A.126.96.36.199 Complex investigations generally include multiple simultaneous investigations and involve a significant number of interested parties. These types of investigations can arise from an incident that involves circumstances such as fatalities or injuries; fire in high-rise buildings, large complexes, or multiple buildings; or fires and explosions in industrial or commercial properties.
Due to the complexity of this type of investigation and to ensure that all known interested parties are afforded an opportunity to investigate the incident and protect their respective interests, understandings or agreements should be developed as early as possible. Items on which the parties might wish to have a common understanding or agreement include safety and environmental hazards, control of and access to site, cost sharing, scheduling, communication, logistics, protocols, evidence processing and handling, evidence testing, interviewing, and sharing of information.
Additional information can be found in NFPA 921.
A.8.8.1 It is critical that all incidents and investigations be fully and accurately documented and reported. Proper determination of fire origin and cause is also essential for meaningful compilation of fire statistics. Accurate fire incident data are necessary to correctly identify and address a community’s fire experience. Accurate statistics form part of the basis of fire prevention codes, standards, and training. Fire loss data and investigation reports are necessary to document fire origins and causes, arrests, and clearance rates, as well as to provide input into the development and maintenance of building and fire codes and fire protection technology. Such data are also critical in assessing the fire protection and fire safety of the community and departmental operations. Accurate data are necessary in applying for and utilizing many grants and other funding programs. Reporting systems such as the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and Bomb Arson Tracking System (BATS), available through the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), can also be helpful in data collection and analysis.
A.9.5.5 Qualified individuals can be utilized to present specific public safety educational programs when they have specific expertise in the topic but do not meet the job performance requirements of NFPA 1035. Examples include certified trainers from other organizations, school teachers who present public safety educational materials, and other public safety professionals.
A.9.6 A formal workload analysis will determine the staffing levels for each FPO. The total number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) required to deliver each program must be determined to identify the total number of FTEs required for the FPO to effectively deliver public education programs to the community.
A.9.7 Organizational staffing and resources will dictate the methods by which FPOs develop, deliver, evaluate, and revise programs. The AHJ has the authority to establish position- specific job responsibilities within the organization. The management of the FPO should be clearly defined in position- specific job duties and responsibilities.
A.9.8.2 In the evaluation of measures, outcome measures should also be developed based upon the actual risks identified in the CRA.
The process of program development, with example outputs, is shown in Figure A.9.8.2.
The process shown in Figure A.9.8.2 is explained as follows:
- Collect Data: This is the step in the process in which incident data are collected from the jurisdiction served. These data are formatted in such a way that the risks associated with the community can be identified. Data are also collected to determine any regional, state, or national trends that can be compared to the local data. The sources of data can be fire reporting systems, state data collection points, national data collection points, or local health departments or agencies.
- Compare Data: Following data collection, the data are analyzed to determine specific common or frequendy occurring incidents. The analysis should also identify geographic, socio-economic, and demographic factors that impact the frequency or severity of these incidents. This analysis should also examine relevant regional, state, or national data to compare local issues and incidents to the larger population to determine if the specific problems are unique to the locality.
- Identify Risks: Following the analysis, specific risks are identified based on the findings. These identified risks will become the basis for public education program development or other strategies to reduce or mitigate the identified risk.
- Identify Root Causes: This is a more detailed analysis of the specific risks identified in Step 3 and is conducted in the development of the CRR plan. These causes should be the basis for development of the goals and objectives of the risk reduction strategy.
- Define Goals and Objectives: Based on the root causes, goals and objectives for performance measures should be developed based on the identified risks. The effort should be focused on the measurements collected and analyzed in the CRA.
- Develop Strategic Partners: Other public and private organizations that have complementary resources should be explored to improve efficiencies for the development and presentation of programs.
- Develop Programs: The programs should implement strategies to reduce the risks identified. The development process is outlined in Section 9.5.
- Implement Programs: This is the actual delivery of the progress developed.
- Evaluate Process and Impact Measures: This step evaluates the interim measures of the programs as they are presented or implemented and determines if the program is reaching the target audience individuals and numbers of contacts.
(10) Modify as Needed: The program should be reviewed in the initial deliveries and modified as needed. The program development should be reviewed to ensure that all the objectives are being met and that any changes implemented improve the program to achieve its goals and objectives.
A.9.8.4 FPOs are encouraged to utilize proven or previously developed programs that are available from commercial, nonprofit, or other FPO organizations to meet the needs of the community within the scope of legal and copyright privileges.
FPOs are also encouraged to share effective programs they develop with other FPOs to enhance the delivery of fire safety programs in other jurisdictions or organizations.
Resources where FPOs can obtain effective prevention programs previously developed include but are not limited to the following:
- National Fire Protection Association
- Safe Kids Worldwide
- Vision 20/20 Models in Fire Prevention (http://www.stra- tegicfire.org/page.cfm/go/seminars-and-workshops)
- National Fire Academy
- Fire safety equipment manufacturers’ associations
- Insurance companies
- The Center for Campus Fire Safety
Education messages should conform to the current Educational Messages Advisory Committee document published by NFPA. These guidelines provide consistent messaging for those identified fire prevention programs.
A.9.8.5 Program content and delivery should be developed based on risks identified in the CRA and the following:
- The age of the target audience
- Language differences within the target audience
- Cultural demographics of the target audience
- Literacy levels within the target audience
- Physical capabilities or requirements of the target audience
- The cognitive abilities of the target audience
A.9.8.6 Local fire risks and losses can be unique to a specific community, and national trends might not reflect the actual risks and losses in the community served by the FPO. The CRA is critical in clearly defining what the risks are to the community. Local risks and losses can be compared to national trends for benchmarking, but national trends should be avoided as the basis for the development of local public education programs. The CRA should always be the priority method for identifying educational programs needed in the local community.
A.188.8.131.52 Examples of programs that can be targeted at preschool-/kindergarten-age children include but are not limited to the following:
- Response to smoke, fire, and CO alarms
- “Hot/Not Hot” programs
- Stop, Drop, and Roll
- Emergency Drills in the Home (EDITH)
- “Tools, Not Toys” programs
- Firefighter—A Community Helper