LPS 1654 Issue 1.1 Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB approval and listing of padlocks
This standard describes the requirements and test methods for classifying the manual attack resistance provided by mechanically operated padlocks and the padlock fittings (e.g. padbars and shrouds) with which the padlocks are supplied.
The standard was developed because the current method for classifying the attack resistance provided by padlocks and padlock fittings, defined in BS EN 12320:2001 Building hardware – Padlocks and padlock fittings
- BS EN 12320:2001 did not classify the padlock’s performance according to its resistance to different levels of attack based on the tools and time available to an intruder.
- Padlocks rated to BS EN 12320:2001 that had been included within products and systems tested to LPS 1175: Issue 7 had undermined those product’s/system’s ability to offer intruder resistance commensurate with the security ratings sought to LPS 1175: Issue 7.
The classification system presented within this standard will aid specifiers wishing to determine whether a padlock’s physical attack resistance is commensurate with that provided by security products and systems rated in accordance with LPS 1175: Issue 7.
The adequacy of the installation method(s) defined by the manufacturer is assessed. However, it is assumed that the feature/element of the item to be secured by the padlock, and any supplementary devices the padlock is to be attached to in order to secure that item (e.g. security chains), provide resistance to attack at least equivalent to that afforded by the padlock itself.
When selecting padlocks to secure a building element, enclosure or other security device, it is important to consider other aspects of the building element, enclosure or security device to be secured by the padlock to ensure they are not vulnerable to attack. Manufacturers and specifiers should therefore ensure the building element, enclosure or other security device is itself assessed and classified in accordance with LPS 1175: Issue 7.
The padlock’s resistance to physical attack is classified regardless of design or materials used in their construction.
Resistance to electrical manipulation is not tested other than by attack methods possible using the tools defined within this standard. It is therefore recommended that electronic components used to operate the product are also tested and approved to relevant operational and safety standards. A separate standard for
mechatronic padlocks and their associated keys will be the subject of a future Loss Prevention Standard.
Resistance to chemical attack, vehicle impact, explosion and ballistics are outside the scope of this standard, as is durability and other general performance.
The requirements and test procedures described in this standard have, as far as possible, been rationalised and harmonised with the following corresponding British, European, LPCB and BSI standards:
The face(s) of the product confronting the person attempting to attack it.
Manual attack resistance
The capacity of the padlock to withstand the attempt of forced operation by manual intervention when that padlock is used in accordance with the instructions supplied with the padlock by the manufacturer.
Numeric indication of the degree of manual attack resistance afforded by the padlock.
Security rating expectation
The anticipated security rating for which the padlock was designed.
Manual intervention attack test
A manual attempt at removing the padlock from the product/device it secures.
Total test time
The maximum duration of an individual manual intervention attack test. It is the accrued sum of the:
- working time;
- rest time of an operative for wellbeing and safety reasons;
- time taken to change tools or exchange defective expendable tool elements; and
- inspection time called by the project leader.
Working (resistance) time
The time of an individual manual intervention attack test in which a tool or tools is used to attempt to create a change in the test specimen.
The working time excludes:
- rest time of an operative for wellbeing and safety reasons;
- time to change tools or exchange defective expendable tool elements; and
- inspection time called by the project leader.
Information to be supplied by the applicant
The applicant shall provide comprehensive information about the product for consideration prior to examination and testing. This shall define the construction of the product over the range to be covered by the evaluation, together with any associated padlock fittings (e.g. padbars, chains and shrouds) and optional features (e.g. alternative shackle lengths, key mechanisms, raised shoulders and waterproof covers). It shall include:
- Details of the applicant and, if different, the manufacturer of the product(s)/systems(s), including:
- Name of manufacturer.
- Place of manufacture.
- Year of manufacture.
- Relationship of applicant to manufacturer.
- Company responsible for design and quality assurance.
- Specifications and drawings accurately detailing the padlock and any associated padlock fittings (e.g. padbars, chains and shrouds) and optional features (e.g. alternative shackle lengths, key mechanisms, raised shoulders and waterproof covers). These shall include:
- General assembly.
- Cross sections.
- Specifications for all components and sub-assemblies used to assemble the padlock and any associated padlock fittings. This shall include full details of the key mechanism.
- The location and design of any local areas of special protection.
- Details of any other elements relevant to physical security.
- A description of the materials used to construct the product if not shown on the drawings. This shall include material thicknesses and full details of any special finishes/processes applied, e.g. hardening.
- Details of any materials or device(s) fitted to, or incorporated within, the product that may harm those testing/using/attacking the product together with associated material safety data sheets.
- Instructions and specifications for secure and effective installation/use of the padlock and the associated padlock fittings (e.g. padbars, chains and shrouds). These shall confirm limitations for use and recommendations for compatible anchorage where applicable.
- Whether the product to be tested is a prototype or is in series production.
- The applicant’s security rating expectation.
All documents shall be dated and given a reference number and issue description.
If the applicant is not the manufacturer then an application must be accompanied by written permission from the manufacturer for testing to be undertaken.
Specimens to be supplied for testing
The following shall be observed subsequent to the acceptance of an application for approval:
- The applicant shall supply an agreed number of specimens.
- The number of specimens to be supplied for test is dependent upon the test schedule specified for the product type, the classification sought by the applicant, together with the range of design variations and alternative options to be covered by the assessment.
All specimens shall be complete with associated keys, and padlock fittings (e.g. padbars and shrouds) to be assessed with the product, and instructions. Additional specimens may be required for separate tests.
- The type and configuration of specimens selected for testing shall be at the discretion of the test laboratory. The normal size and configuration of the product and its intended application shall be taken into account. Where the product is offered in a range of sizes and configurations, specimens of those sizes and configurations likely to be least effective against attack shall be chosen to ensure the test results are representative of the complete range.
- The test specimens shall at least represent those configurations incorporating optional features/accessories that could decrease the padlock’s manipulation resistance. They shall not normally incorporate optional features/accessories that could increase the intruder resistance provided by the product (e.g. chemicals or other additives designed to temporarily enhance the padlock’s resistance to manipulation) unless those features are designed to enable the padlock to achieve a higher security rating and that configuration is to be classified separately.
- All specimens shall be supplied complete with specified fixings for secure installation and installed by the manufacturer or their nominated representative.
- The laboratory may request additional components or elements of products for testing purposes.
- If a prototype product or associated padlock fittings are supplied for testing, then classification cannot be provided until the drawings for subsequent series production have been examined and confirmed that they accord with the tested prototype or that any changes will not reduce the security rating.
Note: Changes to production methods (e.g. machining to casting) or designs between prototype and final production stages may affect the products’ performance. Therefore, it is not automatically possible to attribute security ratings achieved by prototype test samples to subsequent series production.
- When the product incorporates advances or changes in technology, then additional sample pieces, parts or sections may be requested for evaluation prior to the supply of the agreed specimens.
Operating and maintenance instructions shall be provided with the product. These shall include (where appropriate) instructions for lubricating the mechanism, including the specification of the lubrication to be used and recommended frequency of applying such lubrication.
Note: Suppliers have a duty of care to ensure that those fitting and/or using the products know how that product should be fitted and used to achieve the performance attributed to that product. The instructions submitted for evaluation must reflect those supplied with the product and must cover all aspects of installation and use that may affect the security provided by the product when installed.
The installation methods defined for the product shall include limitations and recommendations for compatible anchorage.
Notes: i) It is recommended that all fixings and security features on products primarily intended for use in commercial properties are, as far as is reasonably possible and where applicable, tamper resistant on the non-attack side to prevent surreptitious interference of the designed level of security by an attacker’s accomplice.
- ii) Any exposed fixings that can be accessed from the attack side may be exploited as part of the manual intervention attack tests.
Minimum effective differs/codes
The number of effective differs/codes offered by the key mechanism shall be no less than that specified in Table 1 for the manufacturer’s security rating expectation.
Manual attack resistance
The padlock, and/or the padlock fittings to which it is mounted, shall resist removal from the fixture to which it is attached, when tested using the methods defined in clause 4.2 in accordance with the requirements defined in clause 4.1.
Manipulation resistance of the key mechanism
Key mechanisms used to operate padlocks for which the applicant seeks a ‘+’ key mechanism manipulation resistance classification, shall meet:
- The requirements for cylinders defined within Annex A.6 of
BS 3621:2007+A2:2012 Thief resistant lock assembly – key egress; or
Note: This requirement does not apply to key mechanisms operated by electromechanical keys or non-mechanical devices (e.g. radiofrequency identification devices (RFID)) for which the correct electronic code must also be provided to operate the cylinder.
- Manual intervention attack test procedures
Mount the padlocks, and their associated padlock fittings, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Conduct a series of manual intervention attack tests on the padlock, and its associated padlock fittings, using tools selected from the tool category defined in Table 2 appropriate to the manufacturer’s security rating expectation, with a view to removing the padlock and/or the padlock fittings to which it is mounted from the fixture to which it is attached.
The manual intervention attack tests conducted shall be those most likely to cause the specimen to fail to meet the requirements of the manufacturer’s security rating expectation, and shall confirm whether all features of the product offer resistance to attack commensurate with the minimum resistance to attack defined for that security rating in Table 2.
Each individual manual intervention attack test shall be continued until either:
- the objective is achieved; or
- the maximum test duration is exceeded; or
- the team leader decides that the attack is ineffective for classification purposes.
Manual intervention attack tests shall only be aimed at areas or features which, in the opinion of the team leader, have not been weakened by previous tests. Where necessary, the manufacturer shall provide additional samples so that the laboratory can complete any necessary additional tests on those areas or features.
The working time (resistance time) shall be recorded in order to determine whether the padlock is capable of meeting the manufacturer’s security rating expectation. The timing devices(s) used to record working time shall have a resolution of at least 0.01 second. At the conclusion of the test the working time shall be rounded to the next full second.
The timing device used to measure test duration shall remain activated during each individual manual intervention attack test. The resolution of this timing device shall be at least 1 second.
Manual intervention attack test team
The test team shall comprise a team leader whose function is to direct, time, compile an event record and control the testing work on a product specimen and a test operative whose prime function is to carry out the testing work on the specimen as directed by the team leader.
The team leader may substitute themself for the test operative at any time during testing, the operative assuming the role of time keeper whilst maintaining the event record.
A different test operative may be used for different styles of attack but only one operative (other than the team leader) shall partake in any individual test.
Manual intervention attack test facility
The padlocks, and any associated padlock fittings, shall be mounted on a fixture (e.g. staple) representative of that recommended within the instructions supplied by the manufacturer.
The fixture shall be mounted to a rigid frame that prevents excessive movement of the fixture during testing.
The apparatus shall also comprise attack tools of the appropriate category as specified in clause 4.2.5.
Manual intervention attack test tools
The tool manifest for the manual intervention attack tests and ascribed tool category is described below.
All dimensions are the maximum permitted unless otherwise specified.
No alterations shall be made to the tools other than those required to maintain the tools in good working order. Likewise, tool safety devices such as guards, fuses and other current limiting features and/or maximum speed controls, shall not be removed or altered.
The test team and anyone else present during the tests shall wear appropriate personal protective equipment.