LPS 1183 Part 1: Issue 4.3 Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB approval and listing of safe storage units Part one: Safes and strongrooms
LPS 1183 this standard defines the methods for type-testing and classifying secure storage units according to 2.1 to one of several resistance grades after determining their resistance against burglary.
LPS 1183 classification to resistance grades is made after destructive type tests and comparison of the results with defined minimum resistance values and the minimum design requirements. Using numerical factors, each test and/or additional test carried out to determine the burglary resistance is characterised by a resistance value. This resistance value evaluates resistance according to the type of access gained, the time taken and the tools used.
Free-standing prefabricated safe: secure storage unit whose burglar protection as measured according to 6 originates in the prefabrication and which does not have holes through their protection other than those for locks, cables (up to the size limit of 4.1.2), or for anchoring or base-fixing.
Built-in safe: secure storage unit some of whose burglary protection as measured according to 6 is due to its being at least partly encased (usually with concrete) during installation.
Special types of built-in safes are:
- Underfloor safe: secure storage unit which is accessed from the top through a lockable lid which is removable or hinged.
- Wall safe: secure storage unit intended for installation in a building wall and having a lockable access door at the front.
Strongroom: LPS 1183 secure storage unit whose inside base area is >2 m2 (with inside
dimensions of >1m in each direction), providing protection against burglary attacks according to 6.
Strongroom door: a door giving access to a strongroom secured by locks and boltwork, and which is type-tested together with its frame and any portion of wall necessary for the testing.
Wall penetration: penetration through the strongroom wall for ventilation or deposit of goods.
LPS 1183 possible kinds of wall penetrations are:
When determining the resistance value, any adjoining part of the strongroom wall has to be taken into account.
Sample unit: units which fulfil the requirements for being tested and on which test or additional tests can be performed. Sample units may be component parts or section of secure storage units or complete secure storage units.
Test sample: the totality of the sample units, component parts and section of secure storage units made available for testing by the applicant.
Type test: the totality of the tests and/or additional tests necessary for classifying a secure storage unit.
Test: all the events occurring and the work performed in the carrying out on one particular type of access attack.
Additional test: proof of performance required, in addition to the minimum resistance value, for classification to a specific grade.
Operating time: the interval between the moment when a tool or tools make contact with the sample unit and the moment when that tool or tools cease to be in contact with the sample unit, and during which the sample unit undergoes changes which are due to the use of tools from the tool catalogue. Operating time also includes any time taken to extract tools (or parts of tools) whose removal is necessary to continue the test.
LPS 1183 resistance time: the sum of the operating times of a test or additional test.
Resistance unit (RU): the burglary resistance of a structure in which it takes one minute to obtain access using a tool carrying the coefficient of 1 and the basic value 0.
Resistance grade: the classification given in Table 3, which is characterised by minimum resistance values (in RU) for complete and partial access (partial access applies only to safes).
Resistance value: numerical value in RU calculated for each test by multiplying the resistance time by the tool coefficient of the highest category of tool used and adding to this the sum of basic values for the tools used.
Basic value: a number allocated to a specific tool expressed in RU.
LPS 1183 tool coefficient value: a number allocated to a group of tools expressed in RU/min.
Partial access: hole of sufficient size for passage of a rigid test block according to 5.3.5 to the interior of the sample unit.
Holes of sufficient size for passage through the wall or door of a rigid test block according to 220.127.116.11 to the interior of the sample unit.
Additionally, there are the following types of complete access:
Locking mechanism: the totality of locks and boltwork.
Lock: device able to recognise a coded security input and which actuates a blocking function by movement of at least one physical element.
Boltwork: the mechanism by which a shut door is secured such that until it is withdrawn the door cannot be opened except by destructive attack.
Relocking device: system comprising blocking and detection elements which will prevent the boltwork from being withdrawn if a burglary attack is detected. It can be part of the locking mechanism (active or live relocker) or an independent unit (passive relocker).
to close: to shut the secure storage unit so that bolting becomes possible.
to bolt: to throw the boltwork (or lock bolt if the secure storage unit has no boltwork).
to lock: to secure the unit or block a thrown boltwork by action of a lock.
Non-destructive attack: method or process which leads to complete or partial access without causing a permanent deterioration of the secure storage unit and carried out without knowing the locking code.
Tools: by definition, devices are required to prove a partial or complete access of products which qualify for classification. These devices are called tools. The resistance value is altered by their use.
Tools are divided into the following groups, whereas the brackets indicate the relevant section of the tool catalogue according to 18.104.22.168:
Special tools: Tools constructed in such a way that they can be used either by themselves or in combination with another tool to enhance the effectiveness of a test. They do not, however, replace commercially available tools or processes.
Technical documentation: the totality of all design documents, material specification, testing certificates and other technical information supplied for the type test.
Locking requirements will be specified in later issues of LPS 1183 when a European Standard for Safes Locks (CEN TC 263) is available.
Optional features are:
- a) Time locks and/or time delay locks, these may be mounted in addition to the locks specified in 4.1.1.
- b) Cable entry openings which are less than 100 mm2. These, together with an extra protection associated with them, shall be shown on the construction drawings and be present in the sample unit offered for the type test. When such openings are present but not used they shall be securely obstructed or plugged by the producer. Obstructions and plugs may not be removed from outside without leaving traces.
- c) Cables for penetration detection systems are permitted in secure storage units. They shall be included in the construction drawings of the secure storage unit and be present in the sample unit for testing.
- d) Wall penetrations are permitted in secure storage units. They shall be included in the construction drawings of the secure storage unit and be present in the sample unit for testing.
LPS 1183 the applicant shall furnish to the testing house technical information on the secure storage unit to be tested. An application for type testing shall be accompanied by technical documentation (in the language of the testing house or in the English language) giving details of the design features of the secure storage unit and of any test samples required under 5.1.
This technical documentation shall include the following information:
For built-in safes, the applicant shall provide details of the encasement, which are to be the details and recommendation the applicant supplies to customers or installers, including:
- any reinforcement or anchoring to be included within the encasing mass;
For monolithic cast in-situ construction strongroom walls, the applicant shall provide the details and recommendations which the applicant supplies to customers and installers, including:
- minimum quality of concrete (types and proportions of aggregates, cement and any other constituents, flowability of the freshly prepared mass, 28-day cube compression strength);
Details are to be given for all sizes of product to which the applicant wishes the type tested classification to apply.
Each sheet of the technical documentation shall be given a clear identification and issue description indicating the date of issue and the name of the applicant or manufacturer.
The testing house shall check the technical documentation for completeness. Where the test samples are not described in sufficient detail, the technical documentation has to be completed.
LPS 1183 choice and form of sample units must guarantee that the tested material will allow type testing to be carried out as basis for classification.
Any optional features which may have an influence upon the burglary resistance classification must be defined. Options which represent the least resistant version to which the applicant desires the classification to apply must be present in the sample unit.
Making of sample units
If sample units are specially made by the testing house (e.g. built-in safes), then this shall be done using the component parts supplied by the applicant and following the instructions for installation supplied. At the applicant’s request, the quality of the work will be inspected and a report issued giving all details.
LPS 1183 in addition to the sample units according to 5.1.1, further test samples shall be supplied at the testing house’s request.
LPS 1183 prior to the beginning of the type test, the testing house shall verify, by visual examination and checking of dimensions, that the sample units conform with the details supplied by the applicant, are fitted with any agreed additional features and comply in all
Prior to performing the actual type testing, the testing house is entitled to carry out preliminary tests and make exploratory access. These shall not affect the tests required to determine the resistance grade.
The resistance values are determined by the parameters of choice of attack tools and method of attack. In keeping with the testing aim, the testing house has the task of choosing those tools and methods of attack which are most likely to yield the lowest resistance values.
The type test serves to establish the resistance values of the sample unit(s) to enable a determination of the resistance grade according to 6 on the basis of the required minimum resistance values.
The objective of all tests shall be measuring resistance value in resistance units to discover
The testing team shall comprise:
At any given time, the testing team leader may substitute himself for one of the test operative and participate in the type test.
The testing house shall have the option of retaining the services of independent technical experts in an advisory capacity who may be consulted prior to, during or subsequent to the type test. The applicant shall be advised of the identity of the technical experts
Observers at the type test may comprise:
The testing house may limit the total number of observers admitted. Any individuals wishing to be present during individual tests or additional tests, other than those wholly employed by the testing house, will need to be approved by the applicant.
Tools and accessories are distinguished by their performance (tool categories – group A – S) and/or their kind and mode of operating of the individual tool (row 1 – N), Table 1.
This tool catalogue does not contain specific tools but gives performance features to distinguish the various types of tools according to their performance and /or mode of operation, as well as the relevant basic values in RU. This neutral presentation allows the user of this standard to judge and verify the performance of classified products without having specific knowledge of the tools used.
Safety measures necessary to ensure the safety of the operator(s) are to be taken. Tool safety devices such as guards, fuses and other current limiting features and/or maximum speed controls, must not be removed or altered.
LPS 1183 tools are to be used for the purpose for which they are designed. If a tool replaces another type of tool, the coefficient of the replaced or simulated tool (if higher) is applicable.
Example: If a screwdriver is used as a punch then it is not regarded as a hand(dis)- assemble tool, but as tool-specific accessory with a basic value of 1RU.
Alterations to tools other than those permitted as ‘Specially made tools’ may not be made; for instance, it is not permitted to enlarge nozzles, lengthen electrodes, rods or levers, sharpen masonry drill bits, etc.
List of tools
Taking into account the specifications given in Table 1, the test laboratories provide, harmonise and continue if appropriate a list containing all tools. This tool list must be submitted for inspection during the tests. Any sheet in the list must be dated.
The allocation of the tools to individual tool groups is as follows:
These tools are used to shatter, split or smash various materials and to propel different accessories such as chisels, drift punches and wedges.
Examples: hammers, hand axes, pick axes.
Specially made tools
These tools are tools which are usually not commercially available but are conceived or provided especially for certain purposes by the testing laboratories. If appropriate,
sources of electricity not exceeding the working voltage may be used for attacks dealt to electro-mechanical security devices.
LPS 1183 Certain simple tools which can be easily made, such as wire hooks, loops and rings are allocated to Group M (miscellaneous ‘tools’).
Tools of Groups 1 to 6 are to be used by physical strength only.
Electric without impact
These tools are used to drill or cut (without impacting option); their working voltage is supplied by a source of electricity.
LPS 1183 Examples: drilling machines including cutting and/or cooling fluids. Group 8: Electric rotary with impact option
These are electric drilling machines which can be used with or without impacting option.
Examples: hammer drills, jack hammers, concrete breakers including cutting and/or cooling fluids.
Group 9: Electric impacting without rotation Examples: building hammer.
Examples: electric disc cutters, diamond core drills including cutting and/or cooling fluids.
Tools of Group 7-10 are used with external supply terminals and thus – as a rule (exception: tool category A) – depend on external sources of power.
These thermal tools receive the necessary energy either by an exothermic chemical reaction (heating/cutting gas, solid matter/cutting gas) or by arc cutting.
Examples: gas cutting and welding, oxygen lance, electric cutting and welding.
These include drills, saw blades, corundum discs, nozzles, electrodes. These are consumable and/or replaceable items used together with tools in Groups 1 – 11. Their use is represented by a basic resistance value.
This group includes tools, special procedures and devices which cannot be subsumed under the defined tools but still are to be taken into account. Their use is timed.
LPS 1183 Examples: battery lamps, cooling/cutting agents, chemicals, hydraulic equipment, fibre optic and electronic devices.
These are tools used to enhance testing work. Their use is not timed but represented only by a
Test blocks to measure partial access
Test blocks of 150mm length shall be used for measuring partial access:
Test blocks to measure complete access
Test blocks of 400mm length shall be used to measure complete access:
- a) a test block with a circular 350mm diameter cross section;
Type testing requirements
LPS 1183 the following requirements shall be observed during all tests and additional tests:
- a) The testing team leader shall be responsible for the conduct of the type test.
- b) Only members of the testing team shall participate in the testing work. The observers according to 5.3.3 shall not partake in or hinder the testing work.
- c) Testing shall only be done in areas or against features which in the opinion of the testing team leader have not been weakened by earlier tests. If opinions differ, a second sample must be provided.
- f) Testing tools shall be prepared so that they are ready for immediate use. Set-up times for first assembly are included in the basic values and will thus not be additionally added for the determination of the resistance value. For example, power drills will be fitted with a drill bit, angle grinders fitted with a cutting disc, torches fitted with the appropriate nozzles, drill stands attached to the sample, etc.
- g) Prior to the beginning of each test or additional test, the sample unit shall be closed and locked, to the extent that this is possible, unless the testing team leader and applicant agree otherwise.
- h) Non-destructive attacks (manipulation or lock picking) aimed at locks are not permitted.
- i) The use of explosives and the bringing about of explosion-like processes are not permitted within the framework of the testing work according to 5.3.7. Test methods for determining the resistance against explosives are described under 5.4.2.
- j) During any one test two electric power tools, two thermal tools or an electric power tool and a thermal tool shall not be used simultaneously.
- k) If tools of group 5 are used with both hands, the operating time is determined by the number of blows and is limited to 250 per tool category. The following operating times will be calculated from the number of blows struck and used to determine the resistance value:
- l) A test or additional test shall be continued until the access appropriate to the type of attack is achieved. The testing team leader may abandon a test if no more information necessary for determining the resistance grade can be reasonably expected. This may occur when the resistance value discovered in previous attacks is exceeded.
An abandoned test shall count as one of the number required under 5.3.7.
Free-standing prefabricated safes
The testing will comprise at least:
LPS 1183 the testing will comprise at least:
- a) one attack aimed at the door or lid (including the frame and encasement, if appropriate) to achieve complete or partial access;
- b) one attack to remove the built-in safe from the sample unit (complete access)
The tests comprise at least one complete access.
Additional complete access attacks (for which additional sample units may be needed) are required against walls, ceiling or base if the sample has areas or zones of different construction and for which the resistance value can reasonably be expected to be lower (e.g. in the area of pre-existing holes).
The tests comprise at least one complete access attack aimed at the sample unit representing the door (including frame and adjoining wall sections if necessary).
Additional complete access attacks are required if the sample has areas or zones of different construction and for which the resistance value can reasonably be expected to be lower (e.g. in the area of pre-existing holes).
For each test, the operating times shall be measured using at least two independent measuring instruments (chronometers).
The measuring inaccuracy of these instruments must not exceed 0.05 minutes (for each 10 minutes), and the graduation shall be at least 0.01 minutes.
The testing team leader shall ensure that the operating times are recorded by at least two persons. The time recorded by the person responsible for keeping the event record shall be used as operating time (rounded to the next full 1/60 or 1/100 minute). Only in the case of a recording error or instrument failure will the second time recorded be used as operating time, if so directed by the testing team leader.
The beginning and the end of each recording of time shall be clearly indicated by an acoustic or optical signal. The current operating and testing times shall be visible for any testing observers.
Testing work event record
A testing work event record will be compiled during the type test and shall contain the following information:
- d) composition of testing team, indicating who was the testing team leader, the time keeper and who were the test operatives;
- e) names of testing observers;
- f) characterisation of type of secure storage unit;
- g) identification of sample unit;
- h) description of each type of attack made (in chronological order) giving details of the point of attack, attack tools, measurements made and events, together with a record of all operating times and reference to any photographic or video records made.
5.4.1 LPS 1183 safes whose mass is less than 1000kg must have at least one hole by which they can be strongly anchored. If a sample has a mass of less than 1000kg, or if its type testing is intended to provide approval for a range of sizes any of which have a mass of less than 1000 kg, then the sample must have (an) anchoring hole(s) identical with those which will be present in such safes.
Every anchoring hole will be tested. The test will use the type and size of anchor bolt which the applicant recommends for fixing the safe. For each hole a bolt will be fitted from the inside and a force applied (to the protruding portion) in a direction which attempts to pull the bolt head through thee safe’s wall or base. The force for each bolt to be applied is:
Safes of Grade 0, I, II and III 50 kN Safes of Grade IV and higher 100 kN
These forces must be sustained without the bolt failing or the bolt head being pulled through the wall or base.
A means by which this test may be carried out is shown in Figure 1.
Resistance to explosives (EX)
If during pre-detonation work a penetration is made which is sufficiently large to allow a rigid test block of 20mm dia., length 150mm, to reach the interior, testing will be made by an internal charge. For this purpose, the charge shall be positioned at the geometric centre of the storage volume, the safe locked, and the charge detonated by leads passing through the penetration previously made.
LPS 1183 if a sufficiently large access to the interior cannot be made within the pre-detonation limit (see 22.214.171.124), the charge will be placed in the partly completed hole, stemmed, and detonated.
The available explosive charge mass M will be 100 grams. If the sample unit has an internal storage capacity exceeding 350dm3, the charge mass M will be calculated according to the formula (200g max):
- b) Strongroom doors and walls, etc. Testing of these will involve at least:
- one attack to achieve complete access and aimed at the door era, including the frame and adjoining walls, if appropriate;
- one complete access attack on the sample unit representing the strongroom wall.
The available explosives charges mass M will be 250 grams. Units of resistance grades IX and higher, the charge mass M will be calculated according to the formula (500g max.):
LPS 1183 additional testing with explosives will only be carried out at the applicant’s request on secure storage units classified in resistance grades V to XIII inclusive, and will be for the purpose of determining the resistance against attacks with explosives. The method of testing, the type of explosives and the tools to be used for pre- and post- detonation work shall be chosen by the testing house.
Testing with explosives shall be carried out against and undamaged empty sample unit, unless the testing team leader and the applicant agree that the damage sustained in earlier testing will not influence the result of the explosives test. The additional test can only be carried out on sample units or objects of the same design which have been classified under 6.2.
The internal capacity of safes being submitted to ‘additional testing with explosives’ should as far as possible in the range of 250dm3 to 350dm3
Pre-detonation work and post-detonation work using attack tools of tool categories A to D according to 126.96.36.199 are permitted for carrying out the explosives test. The use of such tools is limited, for the pre-detonation work, to 25% of the minimum resistance value in RU of the resistance grade (complete access) to which the sample unit was previously approved, and to 5% for the post-detonation work. The basic values of tools used in both pre and post detonation work is added once only. This additional test shall be passed after 5% of post-detonation work.
Explosive Evaluation and result
Pre-detonation work and post-detonation work shall be deemed to be one test, i.e., the same tool coefficient shall apply to both types of work. For the purposes of this additional test, the explosives used shall be formally allocated to tool category A.
The sample unit shall be deemed to meet the additional test if the values stipulated in 188.8.131.52 are exceeded for post-detonation work to achieve access, or if the intended access cannot be achieved. In this case, the resistance grade of the sample unit shall be marked by the additional classification EX.
From the event records, a test report shall be prepared which will contain all relevant details pertaining to the type testing.
In particular, the test report shall indicate:
- a) name of manufacturer and place and year of manufacture:
- b) detailed listing of the technical documentation which has been checked and of any changes made:
- c) identification of the sample units;
- d) description and result of any exploratory access made according to 5.2.2;
- e) the testing programme developed on the basis of the initial examination results;
- f) date and place of type testing;
- g) the composition of the testing team, the names of the testing team leader, the time