LPS 1175: Issue 8.1 Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB certification and listing of intruder resistant building components, strongpoints, security enclosures and free-standing barriers
The face(s) of a product confronting the person attempting forced entry.
Either an element of a building façade that prevents unauthorised entry into the building, or an element within the building providing a means of preventing unauthorised access to specific areas within that building.
Note: Examples include doors, shutters, grilles, windows, void protection screens.
The opening elements of a building component, strongpoint, security enclosure or free-standing barrier are “pulled to” with no engagement of any locking mechanism. The opening elements can be opened from the attack side without a key, force or damage when in this condition. The product therefore has no intruder resistance when in this condition.
Combined number of effective differs/codes
The sum of the effective differs/codes for each lock fitted to the opening element that is operated with a different code or key of a different differ.
Difference between lock mechanisms of similar designs which, taking into account practical considerations, ensures that each lock can only be operated by its own key.
Effective height of free-standing barrier (he)
The effective height of a free-standing barrier is the shortest distance between any point on the top of the permanent part of the free-standing barrier (excluding any toppings) and the surface of the supporting ground when measured in the plane of the barrier. This is illustrated in Figures 1 to 3.
Wall, fence, gate, turnstile or other similar self-supporting barrier, and their associated foundations, designed to prevent entry to a defined area.
The capacity of building components, strongpoints, security enclosures and freestanding barriers to withstand forced entry and/or removal from the supporting substrate.
The opening elements of a building component, strongpoint, security enclosure or free-standing barrier are closed and held shut by automatic latching mechanisms that can be operated from the attack side without a key, force or damage.
This condition also occurs when opening elements are latched or dead-bolted using electronically powered locking devices that are set to “fail unlocked”. This is because the opening element may be opened from the attack side without a key, force or damage when the power fails or is removed.
The product does not provide any intruder resistance when in the latched condition.
Manual intervention attack test
An attempt at forced entry or removal by either a single operative (security ratings relating to tool categories A to E) or a pair of operatives (security ratings relating to tool categories F to H) using tools selected from the corresponding tool category.
Minimum locked condition
This locked condition exists if it is not possible to open the opening elements of a building component, strongpoint, security enclosure or free-standing barrier from the attack side without a key, abusive force or damage when:
Person attempting to either force entry into/through the product or remove the product from the supporting substrate during an individual attack test. The maximum number of operatives permitted to attempt to damage the product during an individual manual intervention attack test is defined in Table 6.
Optimum locked condition
The opening elements of a building component, strongpoint, security enclosure or free-standing barrier are closed, latched and deadlocked using all latches, deadbolts and supplementary locking devices fitted to the opening element. It is not possible to open the opening elements from the attack side without a key, force or damage, or with power removed† from any electronic locking devices fitted to the product.
* If the automatic latching device is electronically operated and may be set to “fail unlocked”, the minimum locked condition shall be that achieved by the product when the latching device is isolated from the power supply.
Potable water access cover
A special purpose cover designed to inhibit unauthorised access to potable water.
A self-contained security enclosure designed to inhibit unauthorised access to, or removal of, defined items of value.
An enclosure designed to inhibit unauthorised access to, or removal of, defined items of value.
Performance classification indicating the intruder resistance afforded by a building component, strongpoint, security enclosure or free-standing barrier.
A security enclosure built-in to an existing building/structure which may rely on the fabric of the building (e.g. floor, roof, wall or ceiling) to provide protection against entry into the secured area from particular directions.
Total test time (tt)
The maximum duration of an individual manual intervention attack test. It is the accrued sum of the:
Number of possible codes that can be set on a lock, taking into account practical considerations, which ensure that lock can only be operated by entry of the correct code.
Working time (tw)
The time of an individual manual intervention attack test in which a tool or tools is used to attempt to create a change in the test specimen.
The working time excludes:
Note: Working time may also be referred to as resistance time. It indicates the delay provided by a product when subjected to a manual intervention attack.
The applicant shall provide comprehensive information about the product for consideration prior to examination and testing. This shall accurately define the construction of the product over the range to be covered by the evaluation, together with any associated hardware and optional features/accessories. It shall include:
- a) Details of the applicant and, if different, the manufacturer of the product(s)/systems(s), including:
- i) Name of manufacturer. ii) Place of manufacture. iii) Year of manufacture. iv) Relationship of applicant to manufacturer.
2. v) Company responsible for design and quality assurance.
- b) Drawings of the product including:
- i) Cross sections. ii) General assembly. iii) The design of any areas of local protection and reinforcement.
2. iv) Details of any other element relevant to physical security.
The drawings must clearly indicate how the construction varies over the scope of sizes and options to be covered by the evaluation. This includes:
- v) Type and location of all hardware.
2. vi) Size and location of all local protection and reinforcement.
vii) Type, size and locations of all welds and mechanical fasteners used to assemble the product.
1. c) A description of the materials used to construct the product, if not shown on the drawings. This shall include the materials’ thickness and full details of any special processes/finishes applied to those materials, e.g. hardening and galvanising.
1. d) Details of any materials or device(s) fitted to, or incorporated within, the product that may harm those testing/using/attacking the product together with associated material safety data sheets.
1. e) Manufacturer’s specification sheets defining the hardware used on the product, including locks, strike plates, hinges and dog bolts.
5. f) Evidence that any lock cylinders accessible from the attack side of products, for which a ‘+’ cylinder manipulation classification is sought in accordance with clause 5.2, either meet:
- The general vulnerability assessment requirements for cylinders defined within Annex A of BS 3621:2017 Lock assemblies operated by key from both the inside and outside of the door; or
• The requirements of manipulation resistance class ‘1’ defined in LPS 1242: Issue 2 Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB approval and listing of cylinders for locks.
g) Manufacturer’s specification sheets/drawings defining any optional features/accessories (e.g. vision panels or louvre panels). These shall also define how and where they will be fitted to the product.
h) Instructions and specification for secure installation, use and maintenance.
i) Whether the product or hardware are prototypes or in series production.
j) The face(s) of the product designed to resist attack.
k) The applicant’s security rating expectation.
All documents shall be dated and incorporate a unique reference and issue description.
3.2 Specimens to be supplied for testing
The following shall be observed subsequent to the acceptance of an application for certification:
a) The applicant shall supply an agreed number of specimens.
- b) The number of specimens to be supplied for test is dependent upon the test schedule specified for the product type/security rating expectation, size range design variations and alternative hardware. All specimens shall be complete with any associated hardware supplied or fitted. Additional specimens of hardware may be required for separate tests.
- c) The size of specimens selected for testing shall be at the discretion of BRE Global. The normal size of the product and intended application shall be taken into account. Where the product is offered in a range of sizes, specimens of sizes likely to be least resistant to attack shall be chosen to ensure the test results are representative of the complete range.
- d) The test specimens shall incorporate optional features/accessories that could decrease the intruder resistance provided by the product. Optional features/accessories that could increase the intruder resistance provided by the product (e.g. time delay locks) shall be removed or made inoperable during the test programme.
- e) All specimens shall be supplied complete with specified fixings for secure installation and installed by the manufacturer or their nominated representative.
- f) The specimens shall be fixed to rigid substrates simulating the weakest methods of installation described within the associated installation instructions supplied with the product. For example, doorset specimens shall be installed with maximum gaps between sample and supporting test frame and the minimum packing/fixings recommended within the instructions.
- g) BRE Global may request additional components or elements of products for testing purposes.
- h) If a prototype product or associated hardware/accessories is supplied for testing, then classification cannot be provided until the drawings for subsequent series production have been examined and confirmed that they accord with the tested prototype or that any changes will not reduce the security rating.
Note: Changes to production methods (e.g. machining to casting) or designs between prototype and final production stages may affect a product’s performance. It is therefore not automatically possible to attribute a security rating achieved by a prototype test sample to subsequent series production.
- i) When the product incorporates advances or changes in technology, then additional sample pieces, parts or sections can be requested for evaluation prior to the supply of the agreed specimens.
Operating and maintenance instructions shall be provided with the product. These shall include instructions in respect of the locks and hardware fitted to the product (including any battery back-up for electronic locking components required to achieve the advertised security rating), and instructions for installing/anchoring the product.
Note: Suppliers have a duty of care to ensure that those fitting and/or using the products know how that product should be fitted and used to achieve the performance attributed to that product. The instructions submitted for evaluation must reflect those supplied with the product and must cover all aspects of installation and use that may affect the security provided by the product when installed.
The installation methods defined for the product shall include limitations and recommendations for compatible structural opening materials / design and anchorage where applicable. If allowances are made for gaps between frame elements and supporting substrates, those allowances shall be defined on the drawings/instructions provided together with instructions relating to how the gaps are to be packed out and the minimum finish to be applied in order to achieve the desired security rating.
Note: Table 2 provides an indication of minimum fixing sizes and potentially acceptable structural opening materials for secure installation of barriers into the reveals of structural openings.
Free-standing products and security enclosures shall have a means of anchorage compatible with the designated security rating.
The walls, and if applicable, the ceiling of a built-in strongpoint shall have a resistance compatible with the security rating of the opening element.
The locking logic shall be reviewed in order to determine the product’s minimum and optimum locked conditions.
Padlocks and other removable locking components/hardware
If the product is secured using a padlock, or other removable locking components/hardware, the padlock/hardware shall be treated as an integral component of the product to be classified.
Electronic locking devices
If the product is secured using electronic locking device(s), e.g. locks operated by key pads, swipe card readers or biometric reader, the device(s) and any associated access control system, shall be reviewed to identify whether they may be susceptible to attack when installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Where components of the electronic locking device(s) and associated access control system(s) are likely to be accessible from the attack face using the tools and time defined for the security rating, those elements shall be treated as part of the product to be classified.
Table 2 Typical minimum fixing sizes for secure installation of barriers into reveals formed from the typical substrates noted
Minimum effective differs/codes
If the locking mechanism(s) can be operated from the attack side then the combined number of effective differs/codes offered by the locking mechanism(s) used to achieve each locked condition offered by the product shall be no less than those specified in Table 3 for the security ratings achieved by the product in those locked conditions.
Table 3 Combined minimum effective differs/usable codes of locking mechanisms fitted to opening elements
Lock cylinders that are directly accessible from the attack side of products, for which the applicant seeks a ‘+’ cylinder manipulation classification, shall meet:
3.3.3 Potable water access covers
The following are specific design requirements applicable to potable water access covers:
- a) All vents on potable water access covers shall be obscured from direct line of sight when the access cover is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and viewed from any attitude.
- b) All vent openings shall be fitted with mesh screens that have holes no greater than 425 micron.
- c) All vents shall be baffled to prevent direct access.
- d) When the cover is closed and locked, all hinges and fixings shall be obscured from direct line of sight when the access cover is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and viewed from any attitude.
- e) Failure or breakage of one or more hinges shall not permit the removal or separation of the cover when in the closed and locked mode such that bodily access can be achieved as determined by the test block specified in Clause 4.3.
- f) Any proximity switches or other accessories fitted to the cover shall not be fitted in any way which may undermine the intruder resistance provided by the access covers.
3.3.4 Free-standing barriers
The minimum effective height (he) of free-standing barriers, excluding toppings, shall be as defined in Table 4.
The installation instructions shall describe how to achieve the minimum effective height (he) of the barrier and ensure the optimum intruder resistance is achieved up to the minimum optimum height (ho), for different topography/ground conditions.
The instructions shall also define how to achieve the minimum gap between:
- i) The bottom of the free-standing barrier and supporting ground, if appropriate to that style of free-standing barrier; and
- ii) The end of the free-standing barrier and adjacent barriers that form the perimeter of the protected area, if appropriate to that style of free-standing barrier.
If the un-laden weight of the security container is less than 1000 kg, the container shall incorporate a means by which it is to be anchored to defined substrates. The anchorage system shall be treated as part of the product to be classified, and shall offer resistance to attack consistent with the security rating achieved by the security container.
The overall objective is to confirm the security rating of the product/system by conducting a series of manual intervention attack tests designed to identify the minimum resistance to attack provided by the product/system when it is in the optimum and/or minimum locked conditions.
The attack methods used by the test team shall be those most likely, in the opinion of the test team, to result in the lowest working time (tw) when using tools selected from the tool category associated with the target security rating, as defined in Table 6. Exploratory tests may be made as necessary to enable the test team to determine which attack methods are most likely to be effective.
Performance requirements for each security rating are defined in Table 6.
The security rating shall only be confirmed when all the requirements for the anticipated security rating are met.
Products/systems that do not have a defined attack face, or one that is easily distinguishable by installers using the installation instructions provided, shall be tested from each side and attributed the lowest security rating achieved during those tests.
All information and drawings supplied shall be reviewed to ensure suitability for test and certification purposes.
Provision of a suitable lock(s) on all opening elements through which the test blocks defined in Clause 4.3 may be passed shall be verified and the design / attachment of the lock(s) reviewed to identify possible weakness that may be exploited during testing.
The instructions and recommendations for secure installation shall be reviewed in order to assess potential weaknesses for test purposes and to ensure that where applicable the strength of the structural opening materials are consistent with the security rating of a building component or access cover.
Conformity between specimen and documentation
The test specimen(s) shall be visually examined for conformity with the details supplied by the applicant prior to testing.
Note: A lack of conformity identified at this stage or during testing may prevent the issue of a test report and subsequent certification unless promptly corrected.
Manual intervention attack tests
Undertake a series of manual intervention attack tests on the product using tools selected from the tool category associated with the applicant’s anticipated security rating (as defined in Table 6), with a view to passing the appropriate test block(s) defined in Clause 4.3 through the product and/or removing the product from the supporting substrate.
The working time (tw) shall be recorded in order to determine whether the product is capable of meeting the desired security rating.
The security rating shall be determined in the minimum and optimum locked conditions using tools selected from a single common tool category associated with the applicant’s anticipated security rating, as defined in Table 6. In order for the product’s intruder resistance to be classified in accordance with LPS 1175, the product must achieve the attack resistance requirements of at least security rating A1 in the minimum locked condition.
All aspects of the product shall withstand attack from the attack side such that data demonstrates all aspects of the product provide the minimum resistance to attack defined for that security rating. With the exception of free-standing barriers, this shall be achieved irrespective of height constraints.
The entire area of a free-standing barrier up to at least ho (Table 4) shall provide resistance to penetration consistent with that of the optimum security rating sought. Meanwhile, the remaining area of the barrier excluding toppings, i.e. between ho and he, shall provide penetration resistance at least commensurate with the requirements of security rating A1.
If the entire free-standing barrier does not achieve the optimum intruder resistance, the documents supplied with the barrier system shall define the height (ho) to which the barrier achieves the optimum intruder resistance together with the minimum security rating achieved by the area of the barrier between heights ho and he.
Glazing and other infill materials shall be treated as an integral part of the product and attack tested accordingly. All hardware shall also be treated as an integral part of the product and attack tested accordingly.
Any exposed fixings that can be reached from the attack side may be exploited as part of the manual intervention attack tests.
The test block used to determine whether a person could pass through the product shall have an elliptical cross section 400 mm (-0 mm/+3 mm) major axis by 225 mm (-0 mm/+3 mm) minor axis and be at least 300 mm long.
If the product is not designed to prevent a person passing completely through the product (e.g. a key safe or display case), or is of a smaller cross-sectional area than the above test block, either of the following test blocks shall be used to determine the product’s resistance to forced entry:
- i) 125 mm (-0 mm/+2 mm) diameter circular test block, 150 mm (-0 mm/+2 mm) long.
2. ii) An item representative of that which the product is designed to protect.
The product shall be deemed to have failed to achieve the desired security rating if any of the following occur during any attack test:
- i) the relevant test blocks defined above can be passed through the product (in the case of a doorset or other two-dimensional barrier) or into the product (in the case of an enclosure); or
2. ii) an item, of defined dimensions, representative of that which the product is designed to protect can be removed from it; or
iii) the product (in the case of a security container) can be removed from the supporting structure/substrate within the specified time using the tools defined for that classification, and its un-laden mass is less than 1000 kg.
The test block used to determine a products security rating shall be recorded within the test report.
General laboratory procedures, confidential handling of specimens, event record requirements and presentation of the test report shall be in accordance with the requirements specified in BS EN ISO/IEC 17025 General Requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.
Manual intervention attack test procedures
Mount the product in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions with the attack side confronting the test operative(s).
Secure all opening elements in the minimum or optimum locked condition, as appropriate.
Complete a full series of attack tests on the product using tools of the appropriate category relative to the security rating expectation.
Prior to conducting each individual attack test, the test operative(s) shall select the tools they wish to include within their tool kit for that test from the tool category associated with the applicant’s anticipated security rating, as defined in Table 6.
The mass of each tool used to conduct the manual intervention attack tests shall be recorded to the nearest 0.001 kg.
The total mass of the tools selected for an individual attack test by each operative shall not exceed the limit specified in Table 6.
During individual attack tests involving two test operatives, the tools selected by each test operative are pooled into one tool kit and are available to both attackers to use during that individual attack test.
A new tool kit may be selected for each individual attack test.
Each individual attack test shall continue until either:
- the objective is achieved; or
• the working time (tw) exceeds that defined in Table 5 for the target security rating; or
• the total test duration (tt) exceeds that defined in Table 5 for the target security rating; or
• the team leader decides the attack is ineffective for classification purposes.
Additional attack tests shall be conducted, as necessary, to demonstrate all aspects of the product offer resistance to attack from the defined attack side(s) commensurate with the minimum resistance to attack defined for that security rating in Table 6.
Attack tests shall only be aimed at areas or features which, in the opinion of the team leader, have not been weakened by previous tests. Where necessary, the manufacturer shall provide additional samples so that the laboratory can complete any necessary additional tests on those areas or features.
The timing device used to measure test duration shall remain activated during each individual attack test. The resolution of this device shall be at least 1 second. The timing devices(s) used to record working time shall have a resolution of at least 0.01 second. At the conclusion of the test the working time shall be rounded to the next full second.
- a team leader whose function is to direct, time, compile an event record and control the testing work on a product specimen; plus
• one or more test operatives whose prime function is to carry out the testing work on the specimen as directed by the team leader.
The team leader and test operative(s) may switch roles during a test programme. However, the number of individuals fulfilling the role of a test operative during any one individual attack test shall not exceed that defined in Table 6.
Note: At the client’s discretion, more than the number of test operatives prescribed in Table 6 may be used during an individual attack test providing the maximum number of test operatives attacking the product at any one time does not exceed that that defined in Table 6.
Different test operatives may be used for each individual attack test.
The test team shall wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
Manual intervention attack test facility
The apparatus for testing building components shall consist of a rigid frame suitable for mounting the building component in its normal attitude with fixings specified by the manufacturer. The frame shall prevent excessive movement of the specimen during testing.
Free-standing strongpoints and security enclosures shall be mounted on substrates representative of those referred to within the installation instructions and using the normal anchorage provided with the product. The configuration and supporting substrate shall be noted within the test report.
Free-standing barriers shall be mounted on substrates representative of those on which the device is to be fitted in normal use, and using foundations/fixing methods defined in the product instructions. The configuration and local ground conditions shall be noted within the test report.
The apparatus shall also comprise attack tools of the appropriate category as specified in clause 220.127.116.11.
Manual intervention attack test tools
The tool manifest for the manual intervention attack tests and ascribed tool category is described below.
Unless otherwise specified, all defining attributes; such as dimensions (including handles, heads and jaws), power, and weight (excluding guards or other safety features); are the maximum permitted.